Among the many ethnic groups in Ethiopia, the Amhara are the most populous, representing about one-fourth of the population. Their language, Amharic, is the official language of Ethiopia. From the time when modern Ethiopia was the realm of Abyssinia, the Amhara and the Tigray filled the ranks of the political elite of the country, except when the Italians controlled Ethiopia as a colony from to Untilall Ethiopian emperors were either Amhara or Tigray.
In the s, Tigray dominate the Ethiopian government. Amhara remain a dominant social force, however. The traditional homeland of the Amhara people is the central highland plateau of Ethiopia. For over two thousand years they have inhabited this region. Walled by high mountains and cleaved by great gorges, the ancient realm of Abyssinia has been relatively isolated from the influences of the rest of the world.
The region is situated at altitudes ranging from roughly 7, to 14, feet 2, to 4, meters and at 9 o to 14 o latitude north of the equator. The rich volcanic soil combines with a generous rainfall and cool, brisk climate to offer the Amhara a stable agricultural and pastoral existence.
However, because the Amhara were an expansionist, militaristic people who ruled their country through a line of emperors, the Amhara people can now be found all over Ethiopia. The language of the Amhara people is Amharic. It is a Semitic language somewhat related to Arabic and Hebrew. Its origins derive from a Sabean language spoken by merchants and traders who migrated into Ethiopia from the Yemen region of South Arabia about 3, years ago.
This South Arabian population settled in the highlands of Ethiopia as farmers and traders, and they mixed with those inhabitants already present. These earlier residents are known as the Agau people. Borrowing occurred from the Agau language and Amharic emerged as it is spoken today. Amhara culture has a wealth of folklore in the form of proverbs, legends, myths, and religious parables and anecdotes. This folklore often teaches moral lessons to children and reminds adults of proper conduct.
It also provides explanations for phenomena that are otherwise unexplainable to the average Amhara peasant farmer, since scientific explanations are most often outside the realm of Amhara knowledge. One example of story that weaves explanation into a cultural institution and reinforces the institution is the "phenomenon" of menstruation. Since reproductive biology is outside the understanding of many Amhara, a folktale was developed to explain this monthly occurrence.
The Amhara culture is patriarchal and authoritarian, emphasizing the perceived superiority of the male over the female. Historically, the Amhara people had an imperialistic, militant, and expansionist government led by highly capable emperors directing armies with superior military strategies.
Consequently, much of Amhara folklore idealizes the image of the Amhara warrior who vanquishes the enemy through the shedding of the enemies' blood. In the same way that a warrior sheds the blood of his enemy, according to Amhara folklore, so God has "cursed" woman, shedding her blood each month to remind her that she is the vanquished, the servant of her father and her husband.
In return for her loyalty, she will be rewarded with healthy children, a large family, and a strong man to keep her family safe. There are also stories that teach that the enemy is not to be hated but is rather to be appreciated, because without an enemy, how is a warrior to prove his worth and establish his identity and status in his community and society? The Amhara people are Coptic Monophysite Christians. The population was converted to Christianity in the fourth century AD and their form of the religion has changed very little since its beginnings in Ethiopia.
Ancient Amhara culture had a writing system, and therefore, there is a wealth of texts that have preserved the ancient teachings of Christianity in a language that is not spoken by people today but remains the language of the church. This language is Geez. Amhara Christianity is very unlike what Westerners recognize as Christianity.
Ethiopian Christianity is loaded with Old Testament religion and folklore, as well as elements of a so-called "pagan" religion. Hence, we can say that Amhara religion consists of four separate but interwoven realms of religious belief.
First, there is the dominant Monophysite Christian religion, which includes the Almighty God, the Devil, and the saints and angels in Heaven.We are a D. Political ethnicity is inherently divisive and anti-Ethiopian nationalism precisely because it misguidedly ties identity to land. In doing so, this primitive ideology justifies aggressive territorial expansionism—seeing everyone else as an enemy competitor best handled by ethnic cleansing.
Reasoned arguments and historical evidence cannot penetrate such an impervious mind for the simple reason that it is greed rather than ignorance per se that animates such groups. The ARS parliament should rename these regions geographically as Awi, Wag, Kemise please take out the historic Bati to underscore the goal of local governance rather than ethnic polarization.
This way, those who willfully confuse place names, left unchanged by a highly tolerant people of Agew and Amara descent, with land ownership will have to search for other gimmicks to destabilize Ethiopia. The attempt by Oromo extremists to encircle the Amara by forming a grand alliance of the so-called Cushites against the so-called Semites, using Wollo as a stepping stone, is laughable.
For one, the labels Cushitic, Semitic, Omotic, and Nilotic are categorizations of language families rather than ethnic groups. Secondly, Amharic as the national lingua franca, is a blend of Cushitic and Semitic languages which is why it is trans-ethnic by its very nature.
There is no better way to escape the endlessly divisive politicization of ethnicity than to scrap the silo system along with the poisonous constitution that justifies it. Internet services have been suspended until today to prevent independent accounts of the violent incident at the ADP headquarters on Saturday, June 22 and the subsequent witch hunt operations in ARS, Addis Ababa, and Dire Dawa. There has been a loss of many lives in Bahir Dar and its environs including those Dr.
Federal and Regional forces continue to conduct mass arrests, summary killings and disarming operations. Incensed by a program to train Amhara militia to match themilitia each in Tigray and Oromia, and the arrest of 50 ring leaders zonal officers, OLF militia, and Federal forces under the command of General Berhanu Jula in terrorist attacks in the Kemise Zone, PM Abiy is said to have ordered Dr.
Ambachew to fire BG Asaminew. At the conclusion of the three-day meeting which decided to fire the regional security chief, a fire fight between Federal and Regional guards resulted in many yet unreported deaths. Comment: It is odd that the Abiy Government stood by as 3 million Ethiopians were ethnically cleansed mainly by Somali and Oromo militias and yet he managed to enter Bahir Dar within hours.
Seare for opposing the abuse of federal power. The promise of a transition to a democratic order has thereby been cruelly aborted. We will see in the next few months whether the ODP and TPLF wings will fight it out for control of the national state until one of them becomes a hegemon, form an alliance to share power, or let the country disintegrate.
The destruction of some of the political leadership of the Amhara region for short-term gains is a tragedy for Ethiopia that only Tigrean and Oromo ethncists and the Egypt-Eritrea destabilizers will see fit to celebrate. As long as the toxic ethnic-based political system reigns supreme, Ethiopia will continue to be vulnerable to external destabilization and internal atrophy.
Proudly join the th Commemoration and Celebration of the historic Adwa Victory—the first time a non-white nation decisively defeated a European colonizer!Historically, surnames evolved as a way to sort people into groups - by occupation, place of origin, clan affiliation, patronage, parentage, adoption, and even physical characteristics like red hair.
Many of the modern surnames in the dictionary can be traced back to Britain and Ireland. Simply start with yourself and we'll do the searching for you. View Census Data for Wollo. View Census data for Wollo Data not to scale. There are 43 census records available for the last name Wollo. Like a window into their day-to-day life, Wollo census records can tell you where and how your ancestors worked, their level of education, veteran status, and more.
There are 31 immigration records available for the last name Wollo. Passenger lists are your ticket to knowing when your ancestors arrived in the USA, and how they made the journey - from the ship name to ports of arrival and departure.
There are 6 military records available for the last name Wollo. For the veterans among your Wollo ancestors, military collections provide insights into where and when they served, and even physical descriptions.
Ready to discover your family story? First Name. Last Name. Gender Male. You can see how Wollo families moved over time by selecting different census years. The most Wollo families were found in the USA in In there was 1 Wollo family living in New York. New York and 1 other state had the highest population of Wollo families in Use census records and voter lists to see where families with the Wollo surname lived.
Within census records, you can often find information like name of household members, ages, birthplaces, residences, and occupations.Kine Tibeb - Raya Rayuma [Ethiopian Wollo Culture]
United States. Top Male Occupations in Retail Salesman. Census Record There are 43 census records available for the last name Wollo. Search 's US census records for Wollo. Passenger List There are 31 immigration records available for the last name Wollo. View all Wollo immigration records. Draft Card There are 6 military records available for the last name Wollo.
View all Wollo military records.The Oromo people pron. They are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and represent The word Oromo appeared in European literature for the first time in and slowly became common in the second half of the 20th century. Some Oromo people still follow their traditional religion, Waaqeffanna and they used the gadaa system of governance. The origins and prehistory of the Oromo people prior to the 16th century are based on Oromo oral tradition.
Fra Mauro's term Galla is the most used term, however, until the early 20th century. The Oromo never called themselves "Galla" and resist its use because the term is considered derogatory. After Fra Mauro's mention, there is a profusion of literature about the peoples of this region including the Oromo, particularly mentioning their wars and resistance to religious conversion, primarily by European explorers, Catholic Christians missionaries. Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people probably originated around the lakes Lake Chew Bahir and Lake Chamo.
The aftermath of the sixteenth century Abyssinian—Adal war led to Oromos to move to the north. The historical evidence, suggests that the Oromo people were already established in the southern highlands in or before the 15th century and that at least some Oromo people were interacting with other Ethiopian ethnic groups. Historically, Afaan Oromo-speaking people used their own Gadaa system of governance.
Oromos also had a number of independent kingdoms, which they shared with the Sidama people. The earliest known documented and detailed history of the Oromo people was by the Ethiopian monk Abba Bahrey who wrote Zenahu le Galla inthough the synonymous term Gallas was mentioned in maps  or elsewhere much earlier.
These records suggest that the Oromo were pastoral people in their history, who stayed together. Their animal herds began to expand rapidly and they needed more grazing lands. They began migrating, not together, but after separating. They lacked kings, and had elected leaders called luba based on a gada system of government instead.
By the late 16th century, two major Oromo confederations emerged: Afre and Sadaqawhich respectively refer to four and three in their language, with Afre emerging from four older clans, and Sadaqa out of three.
According to Richard Pankhurstan Ethiopia historian, this migration is linked to the first incursions into inland Horn of Africa by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim. Further, they acquired horses and their gada system helped coordinate well equipped Oromo warriors who enabled fellow Oromos to advance and settle into newer regions starting in the s. This expansion continued through the 17th century.
Both peaceful integration and violent competition between Oromos and other neighboring ethnicities such as the AmharaSidamaAfar and the Somali affected politics within the Oromo community. This caused major redistribution of populations. The northern, eastern and western movement of the Oromos from the south around mirrored the large-scale expansion by Somalis inland. The — period also saw relocation of the Amhara peopleand helped influence contemporary ethnic politics in Ethiopia.
According to oral and literary evidence, Borana Oromo clan and Garre Somali clan mutually victimized each other in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly near their eastern borders. There were also periods of relative peace.
The Borana violence against their neighbors, states Schlee, was unusual and unlike their behavior inside their community where violence was considered deviant. The Oromos are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia They speak Afaan Oromothe official language of Oromia. There are also Oromo in the former Wollo and Tigray provinces of Ethiopia.
The Oromo are divided into two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east. The Borana Oromoalso called the Boran, are a pastoralist group living in southern Ethiopia Oromia and northern Kenya. The Oromo speak the Oromo language as a mother tongue.
It belongs to the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. It is the most widely spoken language of the Cushitic languages and the fourth most widely spoken language of Africa after ArabicHausaand Swahili.Ethiopian culture is multi ethnic, multilingual and multifaceted, and it reflects diversity in culture and respect for traditional customs.
In Ethiopian culture, people have great respect for elders and they will leave their seat or bed for any standing elders even if it is one year old family member. The music of Ethiopia is diverse including range of sounds and rhythm found in various ethnic groups. Folk music dominates the culture and religious music is also common especially in Christians and Muslims. A special Muslims musical form called manzuma is played in northeastern Ethiopia in Wollo.
Musical instruments such as masinko, krar, negarit a drumlyre, musical bows, bamboo flute, Trumpet, sistrum and drums are used in various musical forms. The traditional cloth of Ethiopian woman is called shemma, which is used to make habesha qemisa kind of women dress.
It is a cotton cloth 90 cm long sewn together, sometimes, with shiny threads to give the bright elegant effect. Shawls are commonly worn to different occasions and men wear knee length shirt having a white collar and sometimes, sweater. Use of heavy embroidery and jewelry of gold and silver is also found in Ethiopian culture. There is a host of traditional costumes which the people of Ethiopia have. Today a number of designer dresses are worn in Ethiopia and western dresses have replaced traditional clothing.
Traditional dresses are now only seen during religious ceremonies or festivals. The Ethiopian cuisine includes arrange of vegetables and meat based dishes which are prepared as thick stew or wat. Most of the Ethiopians are adhered to Orthodox Church, Islam or Judaism and hence, eating pork is strictly prohibited. There are several languages spoken in the country of Ethiopia.
There are about 83 languages in the country, and these languages are broadly categorized into four primary groups- namely the Cushitic, the Semitic, the Nilo-Saharan and the Omotic. Amharic is the semantic language which is also the official language of the country and it is spoken by 27 million people of the country. The second largest language of the country is Oromo language. Ethiopian government controls majority of media sections including the TV and the radio, and there are nine radio broadcast stations in the country which have been given license by the government to operate.
The single broadcast network in the country is Ethiopian Television, while, radio broadcast is provided in many languages. The print media serves only a section of literate population and the leading newspaper of the country are the Daily Monitor, Addis Zemen, and the Ethiopian Herald. Timkat-Feast of the Epiphany is a three day festival which is taken part by ten commandants from church and a procession of tabots is taken to the church.
On September 11, New Year Enkutatash is celebrated in Ethiopia which marks the end of rains as the regions is covered by wild flowers and children wear new clothes and people participate in dancing and singing.
Ethiopian Culture Ethiopian culture is multi ethnic, multilingual and multifaceted, and it reflects diversity in culture and respect for traditional customs. Music The music of Ethiopia is diverse including range of sounds and rhythm found in various ethnic groups.
Clothing The traditional cloth of Ethiopian woman is called shemma, which is used to make habesha qemisa kind of women dress. Cuisine The Ethiopian cuisine includes arrange of vegetables and meat based dishes which are prepared as thick stew or wat. Language There are several languages spoken in the country of Ethiopia.
Media Ethiopian government controls majority of media sections including the TV and the radio, and there are nine radio broadcast stations in the country which have been given license by the government to operate.The name "Wello" in Amharic means 'one-third', it is a form of measurement.
The province formerly and historically was called Lakomelza. Its name was changed to Wollo following the foundation of modern Ethiopia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Peasant rebellions rocked the province, which included the Woyane rebellion inand revolts of the Yejju in and Raya was then split into two parts once ethnic federalism was established in Ethiopia on One of the two parts with an Amhara majority Kobo went to the new Amhara Regionthe other Raya Azebo which had a majority of Tigrayans was given to Tigray Region   .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thesis,p. Addis Ababa: Central Statistical Authority. First-level administrative divisions of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa Dire Dawa. Hidden categories: Coordinates on Wikidata All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Emperor Yohannes IV was camping in the highlands to the west of the Chefa Valley in on an expedition to forcefully convert the Muslim Wollo who lived in the region to Christianity. As he was looking for a place to centralize his power in the newly conquered region of Wollohe stayed overnight in a pre-existing town that is now contained within Dessie. While there, he spotted a comet.
He was so impressed by the sight of it that he interpreted it to be a sign from heaven to found his capital city there. Thus, he named it Dessie Amharic "My Joy"as a reference to the elation that the comet had made him feel.
Dessie's location led to the telegraph line the Italians constructed between and from Asmara south to Addis Ababa passing through the city, and giving it a local telegraph office. Also inthe Italian Giuseppe Bonaiuti took part in constructing a fair-weather road connecting the city to Addis Ababa. The city was where his son, would-be emperor Iyasus Vcrowned Mikael negus around During his residence in Dessie, the Negus built a palace and the church Enda Medhane Alem, said to be placed on the site of a church destroyed by Imam Ahmed Gragn.
The church is decorated with paintings which include portraits of Ras Mikael and his son. After the defeat of his father Negus Mikael, Lij Iyasu took refuge in Dessie beginning on 8 November while unsuccessfully seeking support from Ras Wolde Giyorgis and other major nobles of northern Ethiopia.
ETHIOPIA WOLLO CULTURAL AND SOCIAL VALUES
However, Ras Wolde Giyorgis used these overtures to extract concessions from the central government, then marched on Dessie which Lij Iyasu fled 10 December. During the Italian invasionDessie was first bombed 6 December ; the American Hospital was one of the buildings damaged in the attack.
Emperor Haile Selassie was photographed personally machine-gunning the raiding planes.
The city was occupied by the Italians 15 April The Italian garrison of the city surrendered 26 April to Brigadier Pienaar's 1st South African Brigade and arbegnoch and after the Second World Warthe town continued in importance as the capital of the province of Wollo until the province's abolition in In a decree ofDessie is listed as one of only six "Schedule A" municipalities in Ethiopia, while there were about a hundred in "Schedule B".
He gained a B. Ina public address system was installed in the central square which was used to re-broadcast announcements on Radio Addis Ababa to the public. InDessie had one of 9 provincial secondary schools excluding Eritrea in Ethiopia, named after Woizero Sehine the daughter of Negus Mikael. In Februarya crowd of 1, peasants marched from Dessie to the capital to make the authorities notice the famine in Wollo.
They were stopped by police on the outskirts of Addis Ababa and forced to return. Following the Ethiopian revolutionone of the few major encounters between rebels and government forces took place north-west of Dessie in October Instigated by the local landlord, a large group of peasants marched on the city; troops of the Derg fired into the crowd.
Reports of the death toll vary widely, from several hundred to nearly a thousand.