In length it was only one-third greater than Testudo elephantina of the Galapagos Islands.
Among the more important genera are Dermochelys, Chelone, and Testudo. Hibbard's Testudo riggsi Hibbard, is the best known of these smaller turtles. The sow was a military engine, resembling the Roman testudo. At the first hour of the day a cohort advanced in slow march on the ground thus made, forming the testudo Fig. An everyday activity is one you do every day. Thanks, English. Practice using "everyday," one word, and "every day," two words, in this fun quiz with … everyday example sentences!
Words nearby testudo testitistestontestosteronetestudinaltestudinatetestudotestytettet offensivetetanictetaniform. Example sentences from the Web for testudo In length it was only one-third greater than Testudo elephantina of the Galapagos Islands.
Extinct Monsters H. The Vertebrate Skeleton Sidney H. Minstrelsy of the Scottish border 3rd ed 1 of 3 Walter Scott. Annals of a Fortress E.
Word Origin for testudo C from Latin: a tortoise, from testa a shell. Test Your Word IQ! Play Now.To save this word, you'll need to log in. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near testudo testudinate Testudines Testudinidae testudo testy Tesuque Tet.
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History and Etymology for testudo Latin testudin- testudoliterally, tortoise, tortoise shell; akin to Latin testa shell. Keep scrolling for more. Learn More about testudo. Time Traveler for testudo The first known use of testudo was in See more words from the same year.
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Take the quiz Add Diction Build a chain of words by adding one letter at a time. Play the game.The Testudo was lightly armed and armoured and was phased-out and replaced by the more common Chimera. The Chimera features heavier weapons and armour yet retains the Testudo's transport capacity of twelve infantrymen. Another disadvantage of the Testudo was that it used solid rubber tires, which were less dependable than the metal tracks later used by the Chimera.
The vehicle's main advantage over most other military vehicles of the time was its speed, as the absence of thick armour or heavy metal tracks allowed the vehicle to reach impressive speeds. During off-road operation, the vehicle would kick up large amounts of dust, which itself was an advantage as it would conceal the vehicle, acting as a natural smoke screen.
The Testudo's main function was to protect Imperial Army infantry from enemy small-arms fire, but due to the vehicle's light plating it was unable to ward-off heavier munitions, leaving it vulnerable to attacks from enemy heavy armour.
The Testudo was armed with an Autocannon mounted on a small turret, which was capable of turning a full degrees, which allowed the vehicle to engage enemy units whether it was travelling towards them or fleeing. The Testudo's troop compartment was capable of carrying an entire infantry squad, up to twelve soldiers, yet lacked the Lasgun mounts featured on the Chimera. The troop compartment only had a single exit, a rear ramp wide enough to allow two soldiers to exit the vehicle side-by-side.
The inside of the troop hold featured benches that ran the length of the hold, allowing the passengers to sit down. Near the front of the passenger hold were ammunition baskets that held the ammunition for the vehicle's turret-mounted Autocannon. It is unknown if the Testudo was able to be outfitted with other weapons or upgrades.
While the Testudo was used by the Imperial Armyit is unknown if the vehicle was widely used by many Army regiments or if the vehicle was only used by regiments that were near the vehicle's planet of origin.
Regiments that made use of the Testudo are as follows:. There are no known official pictures of the Testudo; the image used above is a photo of a wheeled variant of the Chimera APC that preceded the Testudo in use by the Imperial Army. If official images are released this page will be updated accordingly.
Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Contents [ show ]. Categories :. Turret-mounted Autocannon.A Roman siege device consisting of a movable screen protecting the besiegers' approach to a wall.
A cover formed by the overlapping shields of besiegers and held over their heads. Switch to new thesaurus. European tortoiseTestudo graeca - small land tortoise of southern Europe. Mentioned in?
Elephantine tortoise European tortoise family Testudinidae genus Testudo giant tortoise protection protective cover protective covering reptile genus testudinal testudinate Testudinidae Testudo graeca tortoise turtle. References in classic literature?
View in context. I will first describe the habits of the tortoise Testudo nigra, formerly called Indicawhich has been so frequently alluded to.
Dictionary browser? Full browser? Testudo - type genus of the Testudinidae genus Testudo reptile genus - a genus of reptiles family TestudinidaeTestudinidae - land tortoises European tortoiseTestudo graeca - small land tortoise of southern Europe giant tortoise - very large tortoises of the Galapagos and Seychelles islands.In Ancient Roman warfarethe testudo or tortoise formation was a type of shield wall formation commonly used by the Roman Legions during battles, particularly sieges.
In the testudo formation, the men would align their shields to form a packed formation covered with shields on the front and top. The first row of men, possibly excluding the men on the flanks, would hold their shields from about the height of their shins to their eyes, so as to cover the formation's front.
The shields would be held in such a way that they presented a shield wall to all sides. The men in the back ranks would place their shields over their heads to protect the formation from above, balancing the shields on their helmets, overlapping them. If necessary, the legionaries on the sides and rear of the formation could stand sideways or backwards with shields held as the front rows, so as to protect the formation's sides and rear; this reduced the speed and mobility of the formation, but offered consistent defensive strength against opposing infantry and excellent protection against arrows and other missile attacks.
Then the shield-bearers wheeled round and enclosed the light-armed troops within their ranks, dropped down to one knee, and held their shields out as a defensive barrier. The men behind them held their shields over the heads of the first rank, while the third rank did the same for the second rank.
The resulting shape, which is a remarkable sight, looks very like a roof, and is the surest protection against arrows, which just glance off it. This testudo and the way in which it is formed are as follows. The Baggage animals, the light-armed troops, and the cavalry are placed in the center of the army. The heavy-armed troops who use the oblong, curved, cylindrical shields are drawn up around the outside, making a rectangular figure, and, facing outward and holding their arms at the ready, they enclose the rest.
The others who have flat shields, form a compact body in the center and raise their shields over the heads of all the others so that nothing but shields can be seen in every part of the phalanx alike and all the men by the density of the formation are under shelter from missiles.
Indeed, it is so marvelously strong that men can walk upon it and whenever they come to a narrow ravine, even horses and vehicles can be driven over it. The testudo was used to protect soldiers from all types of missiles.
It could be formed by immobile troops and troops on the march. The primary drawback to the formation was that, because of its density, the men found it more difficult to fight in hand-to-hand combat and because the men were required to move in unison, speed was sacrificed. As " phoulkon ", it played a great role in the tactics employed by the Byzantines against their eastern enemies. The testudo was not invincible, as Cassius Dio also gives an account of a Roman shield array being defeated by Parthian cataphracts and horse archers at the Battle of Carrhae :.
For if [the legionaries] decided to lock shields for the purpose of avoiding the arrows by the closeness of their array, the [cataphracts] were upon them with a rush, striking down some, and at least scattering the others; and if they extended their rank to avoid this, they would be struck with the arrows.
The testudo was a common formation in the Middle Agesbeing used by the Carolingian Frankish soldiers of Louis the Pious to advance on the walls of Barcelona during the siege of —, by Vikings during the Siege of Paris in —, by East Frankish soldiers under king Arnulf of Carinthia during the siege of Bergamo inby Lotharingians under Conrad the Red at the siege of Senlis inby Lotharingian defenders at the siege of Verdun in and by the Crusaders of count Raymond IV of Toulouse during the Siege of Nicaea in During the Euromaidan protests in KievUkraine in the Berkut riot police used the testudo tactic to protect themselves.
From the Column of Marcus Aurelius. Media related to Testudo formations at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Furculachelys Highfield,  Chersus Gmira, and see text.
Several species are under threat in the wild, mainly from habitat destruction. They are small tortoises, ranging in length from 7. The systematics and taxonomy of Testudo is notoriously problematic. Highfield and Martin commented:. Synonymies on Testudo are notoriously difficult to compile with any degree of accuracy. The status of species referred has undergone a great many changes, each change introducing an additional level of complexity and making bibliographic research on the taxa extremely difficult.
Most early and not a few later checklists contain a very high proportion of entirely spurious entries, and a considerable number of described species are now considered invalid — either because they are homonyms, non-binomial or for some other reason. Since then, DNA sequence data have increasingly been used in systematics, but in Testudines turtles and tortoisesits usefulness is limited: In some of these, at least mtDNA is known to evolve more slowly in these than in most other animals.
The first two are more distinct and ancient lineages than the closely related latter three species. Arguably, T. The genus Chersus has been proposed to unite the Egyptian and marginated tortoises which have certain DNA sequence similarities,  but their ranges are and apparently always were separated by their closest relative T.
Conversely, the Greek tortoise is widespread and highly diverse.
In this and other species, a high number of subspecies has been described, but not all generally accepted, and several such as the "Negev tortoise" and the "dwarf marginated tortoise" are now considered to be local morphs.
Some, such as the Tunisian tortoisehave even been separated as a separate genus Furculachelysbut this is not supported by more recent studies. Testudo spp.
Females are able to judge a male's genetic quality through these displays; only healthy males are able to perform costly courting rituals, suggesting endurance rivalry. Female mate choice offers no direct benefits such as access to food or territory or parental care. Engaging in a polyandrous mating system offers a female guaranteed fertilization, higher offspring diversity and sperm competition to ensure that eggs are fertilized by a high quality male.
Mating order has no influence on paternity of a clutch so a female's inclination to mate with multiple males and her ability to store sperm allows for sperm competition and suggests cryptic female choice.
Marginatafor example, where large males breed with large females and small males breed with small females. A female's reproductive tract contains sperm storage tubules and she is capable of storing sperm for up to four years. Storing sperm can also result in multiple paternity clutches; It is quite common among Testudo spp.
And females can lay one to four clutches a breeding season. Sexual dimorphismpromiscuity, long term sperm storage and elaborate courting rituals are factors that effect mate preference, sperm competition and cryptic female choice in genus Testudo.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Testudo Four tortoises of the genus Testudo. Clockwise from left: Testudo graeca ibera Testudo hermanni boettgeri Testudo hermanni hermanni Testudo marginata sarda. Bradley; van Dijk, Peter Paul August 3, Chelonian Research Monographs.A Roman siege device consisting of a movable screen protecting the besiegers' approach to a wall. A cover formed by the overlapping shields of besiegers and held over their heads.
Switch to new thesaurus. European tortoiseTestudo graeca - small land tortoise of southern Europe. Mentioned in? Elephantine tortoise European tortoise family Testudinidae genus Testudo giant tortoise protection protective cover protective covering reptile genus testudinal testudinate Testudinidae Testudo graeca tortoise turtle. References in classic literature? View in context. I will first describe the habits of the tortoise Testudo nigra, formerly called Indicawhich has been so frequently alluded to.
Identification of ticks on tortoises Testudo graeca and investigation of some pathogens in these ticks in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Carr followed up a report that a Chinese merchant in Trinidad was in possession of a rare yellow-footed tortoise Carr classified it as Testudo denticulate at that time. China eats the world. He has served in three uniformed employments and is very familiar with Roman tactics which are still used in everyday life: shield tactics and skills - testudo being much used in the Police and Prison Service.
Trakya Yoresi'ndeki kaplumbagalarda Testudo graeca Hyalomma aegyptium Lineaus, 'un yayginligi. Presencia de Salmonella spp. George the tortoise is reunited with owner after escape. Dictionary browser? Full browser? Testudo - type genus of the Testudinidae genus Testudo reptile genus - a genus of reptiles family TestudinidaeTestudinidae - land tortoises European tortoiseTestudo graeca - small land tortoise of southern Europe giant tortoise - very large tortoises of the Galapagos and Seychelles islands.